The Complete Official Guidelines of Transliteration and Romanization of Non-Latin Script Languages

by Samuel Chong ([email protected]), Pasadena City College

Romanization, also known as Latinization, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script.  Transliteration is a method of Romanization, and it is the conversion of a text from a non-Latin script to a Latin script.  It is not concerned with representing the sounds of the original, only the characters, ideally accurately and unambiguously.

Guidelines for Romanization and transliteration have progressed over the years.  Currently, almost all non-Latin script languages have adopted an official guideline for transliteration and Romanization.  These guidelines have been adopted by the United Nations as well as the Library of Congress of the United States.  Below is a complete list of the official guidelines of transliteration and Romanization of non-Latin script languages.  Please feel free to contact me if you have any comments.

Credits and References: Thomas T. Pedersen, Transliteration of Non-Roman Scripts and Library of Congress (Romanization Tables)

Language Language Description Guidelines of Transliteration and Romanization
Abaza Abaza is written in Cyrillic alphabet in Russian and in Latin script in Turkey.
Spoken by 45,000 people, Abaza has two dialects in which T'ap'anta is the literary standard.
Abaza Transliteration & Romanization
Abkhaz Abkhaz uses its own adaption of the Cyrillic script, and its literary form has been around for about one century. 
Spoken by 100,000 people, Abkhaz is the official language of Abkhazia.
Abkhaz Transliteration & Romanization
Adyghe (Adyghian) Before Adyghe adapted Cyrillic in the 1900's, it used Arabic-based alphabet together with Latin.
Adyghe has about half a million native speakers and is one of the two official languages of Republic of Adygea alongside with Russian.
Adyghe Transliteration & Romanization
Altay (Altai) Altay uses Cyrillic script currently.  It was once called Oyrot and used Latin script before 1950's.
With approximately 57,000 native speakers, Altay is the official language of Altai Republic, Russia. 
Altay Transliteration & Romanization
Amharic Amharic uses the Ge'ez script and it is an abugida.
Amharic is an Afro-Asiatic language with 22 million native speakers mostly in Ethiopia.
Amharic Transliteration & Romanization
Arabic Arabic alphabet has 28 unicameral letters which do not have definition between upper and lower cases.
Arabic is spoken by 175 million people and it is one of the six official languages of the United Nations.
Arabic Transliteration & Romanization 
Armenian Armenian has its own script, and its alphabet consists of  36 letters.
Armenian has 10 million speakers and it is the native language for the Armenian highlands.
Armenian Transliteration & Romanization
Assamese The Assamese script is an abugida system.
Assamese is official language of the state of Assam with 15 million native speakers.
Assamese Transliteration & Romanization
Avar Avar has had several different scripts, and it currently uses the Cyrillic script. 
It is spoken by 760,000 people mainly in Russian Caucasus republic of Dagestan, and Balaken, Zagata regions of northwest Azerbaijan.
Avar Transliteration & Romanization
Azerbaijani Azerbaijani uses various scripts in different regions―Azerbaijani alphabet in Azerbaijani, Cyrillic in Russia, and Perso-Arabic alphabet in Iran.
 Azerbaijani has 45 million native speakers, and is the official language of Azerbaijan and Dagestan.
Azerbaijani Transliteration & Romanization
Balinese Balinese first used the Balinese script, and current uses the Latin script.
Balinese is an Austronesian language with 3.3 million native speakers.
Balinese Transliteration & Romanization
Bashkir Bashkir originally used Chagatai as its written language, later it was replaced with a variety of Turki, a literary Turkic language.
Spoken by approximately 1,200,000 people, Bashkir is one of the two official languages of Republic of Bashkortostan alongside Russian.
Bashkir Transliteration & Romanization
Batak Batak historically used the Batak script but most of the writing uses the Latin script.
Batak is an Austronesian language mostly spoken in Sumatra, Indonesia.
Batak Transliteration & Romanization
Belarusian First written in Belarusian Latin and Belarusian Arabic alphabet, Belarusian alphabet is now a variant of Cyrillic script.
With 3 million native speakers, Belarusian is the one of the official languages of Belarus alongside with Russian.
Belarusian Transliteration & Romanization
Bengali The Bengali script is an abugida. Its alphabet is used throughout Bangladesh and eastern India.
With 230 million speakers, Bengali is the national language of Bangladesh and second most spoken language in India.
Bengali, Assamese, and Manipuri Transliteration & Romanization
Bulgarian  Bulgarian first used Glagolitic alphabet and later adapted the Cyrillic script.
Bulgarian has 9 million native speakers, and it became one of the official languages of the European Union in 2007.
Bulgarian Transliteration & Romanization 
Burmese Burmese, written in Burmese alphabet, is the fifth Sino-Tibetan language to develop a writing system. 
Spoken by 40 million people, Burmese is the official language of Myanmar where the English name of the language is officially Myanmar language.
Burmese Transliteration & Romanization 
Buryat  Buryat uses Cyrillic script, Mongolian script, and Vagindra script which was only used briefly in the 20th century.
Buryat is considered a variant of Mongolic language or a major dialect group of Mongolian.
Buryat Transliteration & Romanization 
Cham  Cham uses Cham alphabet in Vietnam and Arabic script in Cambodia.
Cham is an Austronesian language with 320,000 native speakers mostly in Cambodia and Vietnam.
Cham Transliteration & Romanization 
Chechen  Chechen first used Georgian script and later adapted the Arabic script.
Chechen is spoken by 1.4 million people, and it is one of the official languages of Chechen Republic alongside with Russian.
Chechen Transliteration & Romanization 
Chinese (Mandarin) Mandarin uses logosyllabic characters that represent words without the presence of vowels or consonants.
Mandarin is one of the most spoken languages with 845 million speakers.
Chinese Transliteration & Romanization 
Cherokee Before the Cherokee syllabary was developed in the 1820s, it was a spoken language.
Cherokee is an Iroquoian language with about 15.000 native speakers.
Cherokee Transliteration & Romanization 
Church Slavic Also known as New Church Slavonic, Church Slavic uses the Glagolitic and Cyrillic scripts.
Church Slavic is an Indo-European language with no native speakers.
Church Slavic Transliteration & Romanization 
Chuvash  Chuvash was first written in the Old Turkic alphabet and later adapted the Arabic script.
In 2007, many variants of Chuvash transliterations were brought to one Latin script.
Chuvash Transliteration & Romanization 
Coptic Also known as Coptic Egyptian, it uses the Coptic alphabet.
Coptic is an Afro-Asiatic language that is considered extinct and has no native speakers.
Coptic Transliteration & Romanization 
Crimean Tatar  Crimean Tatar can be written in either Cyrillic or Latin script, but Cyrillic script became the official script after the Russian annexation.
Crimean Tatar is a indigenous language of Crimea with about half a million native speakers.
Crimean Tatar Transliteration & Romanization 
Dargwa (Dargin) Dargwa uses Cyrillic script.
It is spoken by about half a million people in the Russian republic of Dagestan.
Dargwa Transliteration & Romanization 
Divehi  Divehi used the Dhives Akuru script until the 18th century, and it is currently using the Thaana script.
Divehi is an Indo-European language with 340,000 native speakers.
Divehi Transliteration & Romanization 
Dungan  Dungan is the only variety of Chinese that uses Cyrillic script instead of Chinese characters.
It is a Sino-Tibetan language natively spoken by 110,000 people in Central Asia.
Dungan Transliteration & Romanization 
Erzya Mordvin  Erzya Mordvin uses the Cyrillic script, and it is closely related to Moksha Mordvin.
Together with Moksha Mordvin, this language has about 400,000 native speakers.
Erzya Mordvin Transliteration & Romanization 
Eskimo-Yupik  Eskimo-Yupik uses the Cyrillic script. 
With only 60 native speakers recorded in 2010, it is one of the four Yupik languages.
Eskimo-Yupik Transliteration & Romanization 
Even  The Even language is a Tungusic language spoken by the Evens in Siberia.
It has about 5,700 native speakers and uses Latin and Cyrillic scripts. 
Even Transliteration & Romanization 
Evenki Evenki is written in Cyrillic, Latin and Mongolian scripts in China.
 Evenki is a Tungusic language with 17,000 native speakers.
Evenki Transliteration & Romanization 
Farsi Also known as Persian, Farsi is mostly spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan.
With 60 million native speakers, Farsi has several different written and spoken forms.
Persian (Farsi) Transliteration & Romanization
Gagauz In chronological order, Gagauz used Greek, Cyrillic, and Latin-based alphabet modeled after the Turkish alphabet.
It is the official language of the Autonomous Region of  Gagauzia with 140,000 native speakers.
Gagauz Transliteration & Romanization 
Georgian Georgian alphabet is developed from Asomtavruli alphabet and it has 33 unicameral letters.
Spoken by 7 million people, Georgian is the literary language of all regional subgroups of Georgians.
Georgian Transliteration & Romanization
Greek Greek, derived from Phoenician language, has over 3400 years of written record.
Despite being one of the oldest alphabets that still exists, Greek is spoken only by 13 million people.
Greek Transliteration & Romanization
Gujarati  Gujarati originally used the Devanagari script and is now written in Arabic and Persian scripts.
It is the official language of the union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. 
Gujarati Transliteration & Romanization 
Hebrew Hebrew alphabet consists 22 letters, and its script is written from right to left.
Spoken by 9 million people, Hebrew is one of the two official languages in Israel.
Hebrew and Yiddish Transliteration & Romanization 
Hindi Hindi uses Devanagari script, and its modern form of alphabets was developed in the 15th century.
With nearly 500 million speakers, Hindi is the fourth most spoken language.
Hindi, Marathi, and Nepali Transliteration & Romanization
Ingush The first written form of Ingush was Arabic-based. It then used Latin alphabet, which was replaced by Cyrillic.
Ingush is spoken by 320,000 people across the Russian republics of Ingushetia and Chechnya.
Ingush Transliteration & Romanization 
Inuktitut Inuktitut uses script based on Latin script and Cyrillic script in Siberia.
Inuktitut is an Eskimo―Aleut language with 34,000 native speakers.
Inuktitut Transliteration & Romanization 
Japanese Modern Japanese language uses three scripts, Kanji (Chinese characters), Hiragana and Katakana.
Spoken by 127 million people, its written form was developed in the eighth century.
Japanese Transliteration & Romanization 
Javanese Javanese uses the Latin, Javanese, and Arabic scripts.
Javanese is an Austronesian language with 82 million native speakers mostly in Indonesia.
Javanese, Sundanese, and Madurese Transliteration & Romanization 
Jawi-Pegon n/a Jawi-Pegon Transliteration & Romanization 
Judeo-Arabic The writing system of Judeo-Arabic uses the Hebrew alphabet.
Judeo-Arabic is an Afro-Asiatic language with 540,000 native speakers.
Judeo-Arabic Transliteration & Romanization 
Kabardian  Kabardian is a language closely related to Adyghe that uses Cyrillic, Latin, and Arabic scripts.
 It has about 1.5 million native speakers across Circassia, Turkey, Jordan, Syria, and Iraq.
Kabardian Transliteration & Romanization 
Kalmyk  Kalmyk was first written in Uyghur script and its official alphabet, Clear script, was later created in the 17th century.
Kalmyk is a Mongolic language with about 80,000 native speakers in Russia.
Kalmyk Transliteration & Romanization 
Kannada  Kannada's writing system evolved from Proto-Kannada to Pre-Old Kannada, Old Kannada, and then the current Kannada script.
Kannada is a Dravidian language spoken by about 50 million people mostly in south India.
Kannada Transliteration & Romanization 
Karachay-Balkar  Karachay-Balkar is a language closely related to Kumyk using Cyrillic and Latin scripts.
Karachay-Balkar is classified as a Turkic language with 310,000 native speakers. 
Karachay-Balkar Transliteration & Romanization 
Karakalpak  Karakalpak was first written in Arabic and Persian scripts, later in Latin and the current Cyrillic script.
Karakalpak is a Turkic language with about 410,000 native speakers.
Karakalpak Transliteration & Romanization 
Kazakh  Kazakh uses Cyrillic, Latin, Perso-Arabic, and Kazakh Braille scripts.
Kazakh is closely related to Nogay and has about 11 million native speakers. 
Kazakh Transliteration & Romanization 
Kashmiri  Kashmiri originally used the Perso-Arabic script and it is currently the Devanagari and Sharada scripts.
Kashmiri is an Indo-European language with 5.6 million native speakers mostly in India.
Kashmiri Transliteration & Romanization 
Khakass  Khakass uses the Cyrillic script.
It is a Turkic language with about 43,000 native speakers.
Khakass Transliteration & Romanization 
Khanty  Khanty first used Latin script and later adapted the Cyrillic alphabet.
Khanty is an Uralic language with only 9,600 native speakers. 
Khanty Transliteration & Romanization 
Khmer Khmer uses Abugida script which has both alphabetic letters and syllabic characters in it.
Spoken by 16 million people, Khmer is the second most spoken Austroasiatic language and the official language of Cambodia.
Khmer Transliteration & Romanization 
Kirghiz  Kirghiz first used the Latin and Kyrgyz Braille scripts before it adapted the current Cyrillic and Perso-Arabic scripts.
Kirghiz is Turkic language with 4 million native speakers mostly in Kyrgyzstan. 
Kirghiz Transliteration & Romanization 
Komi  Komi now uses the Cyrillic script after the original Old Permic script.
Komi is an Uralic language with 220,000 native speakers mostly in the Komi Republic.
Komi Transliteration & Romanization 
Komi-Permyak  Komi-Permyak is one of the two variants of Komi language, the other one being Komi-Zyrian.
 Komi-Permyak is an Uralic language with 63,000 native speakers mostly in Perm Krai of Russia.
Komi-Permyak Transliteration & Romanization 
Korean Korean language is written in Hangul script, which originates from Hanja (Chinese characters).
Spoken by 63 million people, Korean is the official language of North and South Korea.
Korean Transliteration & Romanization 
Koryak  Koryak uses the Koryak alphabet and is closely related to Chukchi language.
It is a Chukotko-Kamchatkan language with 1,700 native speakers mostly in Koryak Okrug. 
Koryak Transliteration & Romanization 
Kumyk  Before Kumyk adapted the Cyrillic script, it used Arabic and Latin scripts.
Kumyk has been influenced by Russian and has around 450,000 native speakers in Russia. 
Kumyk Transliteration & Romanization 
Kurdish  Kurdish is currently using the Perso-Arabic and Latin scripts.
Kurdish is an Indo-European language with 30 million native speakers.
Kurdish Transliteration & Romanization 
Ladino Ladino is a Romance language consisting several dialects.
Ladino is an Indo-European language with 31,000 native speakers.
Ladino Transliteration & Romanization 
Lakh  Also known as Lak, its alphabet is based on Cyrillic script.
Lakh is a Northeast Caucasian language with 150,000 native speakers mostly in southern Dagestan.
Lakh Transliteration & Romanization 
Lao  Also known as Laotian, Lao uses Lao script like many other languages in Laos.
Lao is Tai-Kadai language with 25 million native speakers.
Lao Transliteration & Romanization 
Lepcha  Lepcha uses the Lepcha script currently and the Tibetan script prior to it.
Lepcha is a Sino-Tibetan language with 60,000 native speakers Sikkim, India.
Lepcha Transliteration & Romanization 
Lezgian  Lezgian alphabet is based on Arabic, Latin, and Cyrillic scripts chronologically.
Lezgian is a Northeast Caucasian language with one million native speakers mostly in southern Dagestan and northern Azerbaijan.
Lezgian Transliteration & Romanization 
Limbu Limbu uses the Limbu script, and it is one of the only 3 Sino-Tibetan languages to have its own script.
Limbu is the official language of Nepal and Sikkim, India with 380,000 native speakers.
Limbu Transliteration & Romanization 
Macedonian  Macedonian was previously written in Early Cyrillic alphabet and later Cyrillic script with adaptation of Serbian or Bulgarian.
 Macedonian is an Indo-European language with about 2 million native speakers mostly in the transnational region of Macedonia.
Macedonian Transliteration & Romanization 
Madurese  Madurese is traditionally written in Javanese script but is more commonly written in Latin and Pegon scripts.
Madurese is an Austronesian language with 15 million native speakers.
Javanese, Sundanese, and Madurese Transliteration & Romanization 
Malayalam  Malayalam first used the Vatteluttu script, and later the Kolezhuthu script.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language with 38 million native speakers mostly in the state of Kerala, India. 
Malayalam Transliteration & Romanization 
Manchu Manchu uses the Manchu alphabet based on the Mongolian script.
There are only 10 recorded native speakers out of the 10 million ethnic Manchus.
Manchu Transliteration & Romanization 
Mande languages(N'ko) Mande languages are classified as Niger-Congo languages.
These languages are spoken mostly in West Africa.
Mande languages (N'ko script) Transliteration & Romanization 
Mansi  Mansi's former Latin alphabet was replaced by Cyrillic in 1937.
Mansi is an Uralic language with less than 1,000 native speakers in the Khanty-Mansi region of Russia.
Mansi Transliteration & Romanization 
Marathi Marathi uses the Devanagari script.
Marathi is a Indo-European language with 73 million native speakers.
Marathi Transliteration & Romanization 
Mari  Mari is an Uralic language using the Cyrillic script.
It has about 500,000 native speakers in the Mari Republic. 
Mari Transliteration & Romanization 
Moksha Mordvin  Moksha Mordvin uses the Cyrillic script, and it is closely related to Erzya Mordvin.
Together with Erzya Mordvin, this language has about 400,000 native speakers.  
Moksha Mordvin Transliteration & Romanization 
Mongolian Mongolian is the only vertically written language that writes from left to right.
Mongolian is spoken by 6 million people in central Asian and is the official language of Mongolia.
Mongolian Transliteration & Romanization
Moplah Moplah is a Mappila dialect mostly spoken Mappila Muslim community.
It uses the Arabic script.
Moplah Transliteration & Romanization
Moroccan Tamazight Also known as Central Atlas Tamazight, Moroccan Tamazight uses the Tifinagh, Latin, and Arabic scripts.
Moroccan Tamazight is an Afro-Asiatic language with 2.5 million native speakers.
Moroccan Tamazight Transliteration & Romanization
Nanai  Nanai language used the Cyrillic script and now uses the exact same alphabet as Russian.
Nanai is a Tungusic language with 1,400 native speakers mostly in Siberia.
Nanai Transliteration & Romanization 
Nenets  Nenets is an Uralic language with about 22,000 native speakers.  Nenets Transliteration & Romanization 
Nepali Nepali is written in Devanagari script which has around 100 basic letter forms.
Spoken by 40 million people worldwide, it is the official language of Nepal.
Hindi, Marathi, and Nepali Transliteration & Romanization
Nivkh  Nivkh uses the Cyrillic script and is native to Russia and Japan.
Nivkh has only about 200 native speakers.
Nivkh Transliteration & Romanization 
Nogay  Also known as Nogai, Nogay is closely related to Kazakh language.
Nogay is a Turkic language with 87,000 native speakers.
Nogay Transliteration & Romanization 
Oriya  Also known as Odia, Oriya uses the Odia alphabet and Odia Braille.
Oriya is an Indo-European language with 33 million native speakers mostly in the state of Odisha, India.
Oriya Transliteration & Romanization 
Ossetian  Ossetian first used the Georgian and Latin scripts and later adapted the Cyrillic script.
Ossetian is an Indo-European language with 570,000 native speakers mostly in the northern parts of the Caucasus Mountains. 
Ossetian Transliteration & Romanization 
Ottoman Turkish  Ottoman Turkish's former Perso-Arabic script was later replaced by the extended Latin alphabet in 1928.
 Ottoman Turkish is a Turkic language in which words with Arabic origin greatly outnumbers native Turkish words.
Ottoman Turkish Transliteration & Romanization 
Pali In Sri Lanka, Pali is recorded in Sinhala scripts.
Pali is an Indo-European language with no surviving native speakers.
Pali Transliteration & Romanization 
Panjabi Also known as Punjabi, Panjabi uses Shahmukhi Gurmukhi scripts.
Panjabi is a Indo-European language with 100 million native speakers.
Panjabi Transliteration & Romanization 
Pashto Pashto is written in Naskh script which is derived from Arabic.
Spoken by 60 million people, Pashto is the main language used in Afghanistan.
Pashto Transliteration & Romanization 
Romanian (Cyrillic) Romanian uses Latin and Cyrillic scripts.
Romanian is an Indo-European language with 24 million native speakers mostly in Romania and Moldova.
Romanian (Cyrillic) Transliteration & Romanization
Russian Russian language uses Cyrillic script that originated from Greek.
Spoken by 144 million people, Russian is one of the official languages of the United Nations.
Russian Transliteration & Romanization
Rusyn  Rusyn uses the Carpatho-Rusyn alphabet.
Based on different dialects, various orthographies have been developed for Rusyn.
Rusyn Transliteration & Romanization 
Sanskrit Sanskrit uses modern Devanagari script and most written forms of Indian languages are derived from it.
Sanskrit was the lingua franca of Greater India and is the primary sacred language in Hinduism.
Sanskrit and Prakrit Transliteration & Romanization 
Santali Santali was a spoken language until the 19th century, and it started to use the Ol Chiki script since then.
Santali is an Austroasiatic language with 6 million native speakers.
Santali Transliteration & Romanization 
Selkup  Selkup is an Uralic language with 1,000 native speakers mostly in the Ob and Yenisei Rivers region in Siberia.  Selkup Transliteration & Romanization 
Serbian  Serbian uses both Latin and Cyrillic scripts.
Serbian is a Indo-European language with 9 million native speakers in Serbia, Montenegro, and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Serbian Transliteration & Romanization 
Shan Shan language uses the Mon script.
Shan is a Tai-Kadai language with 3 million native speakers mostly in Burma, Thailand, and China.
Shan Transliteration & Romanization 
Sindhi  Sindhi uses many scripts such as Arabic, Devanagari, Gujarati, and Landa scripts.
Sindhi is the official language of Pakistan province of Sindhi with 75 million native speakers. 
Sindhi Transliteration & Romanization 
Sinhalese The Sinhala alphabet is based on the Brahmi script.
It is a Indo-European language with 16 million native speakers mostly in Sri Lanka.
Sinhalese Transliteration & Romanization 
Sundanese Sundanese us currently written in Latin and modern Sundanese scripts.
Sundanese is an Austronesian language with 38 million native speakers mostly in Indonesia.
Javanese, Sundanese, and Madruese Transliteration & Romanization 
Syriac Also known as Syriac Aramaic, Syriac uses the Esṭrangelā script.
Syriac is an Afro-Asiatic language that declined as a vernacular language after the 14th century.
Syriac Transliteration & Romanization 
Tamashek Tamashek has two dialect, the Timbuktu and Tadghaq.
It is a Afro-Asiatic language with 300,000 recorded native speakers.
Tamashek Transliteration & Romanization 
Tamil Tamil is the longest surviving classical language that maintains its original form.
Spoken by 85 million people, Tamil is the national language of Sri Lanka and one of the official languages of Singapore.
Tamil Transliteration & Romanization 
Tabasaran  Tabasaran uses the the Cyrillic script.
Tabasaran is a Northeast Caucasian language with 130,000 native speakers mostly in the southern parts of the Russian Republic of Dagestan. 
Tabasaran Transliteration & Romanization 
Tajik  Tajik uses the Cyrillic, Persian, and Latin scripts.
Tajik is an Indo-Iranian language that is mutually intelligible to Persian spoken in Iran and Dari Persian in Afghanistan. 
Tajik Transliteration & Romanization 
Talysh  Talysh first used Latin-based alphabet and later uses the Perso-Arabic script.
Talysh is a Northwestern Iranian language with 900,000 native speakers mostly in Iranian provinces of Gilan and Ardabil.
Talysh Transliteration & Romanization 
Tatar  The Cyrillic and Latin scripts were once the 2 official scripts of Tatar, but Cyrillic later became the sole official script in 2002.
 Tatar is a Turkic language with 6.5 million native speakers mostly in Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.
Tatar Transliteration & Romanization 
Telugu  The Telugu script is an abugida, and it has one to one correspondence with Sanskrit script.
Telugu is a Dravidian language with 75 million native speakers in India.
Telugu Transliteration & Romanization 
Thai Written in Thai script, the Thai alphabet has 59 letters.
Spoken by 40 million people, Thai is the national and official language of Thailand.
Thai Transliteration & Romanization 
Tibetan Tibetan is written in Tibetan Braille and Tibetan alphabet which consist of 35 letters.
The classical Tibetan is a major literary language due to its use in Buddhist literature.
Tibetan Transliteration & Romanization 
Tigrinya Also known as Tigrigna, Tigrinya uses Tigrinya alphabet based on Ge'ez script.
Tigrinya is an Afro-Asiatic language with 7 million native speakers mostly in Eritrea and Ethiopia.
Tigrinya Transliteration & Romanization 
Turkmen  Turkmen alphabet is based on Latin alphabet, but the old Soviet Cyrillic alphabet is still common.
Turkmen is the official language Turkmenistan with 8 million native speakers. 
Turkmen Transliteration & Romanization 
Tuvinian  Also known as Tuvan, Tuvinian uses Cyrillic script.
Tuvinian is a Turkic language with roughly 300,000 native speakers mostly in south-central Siberia. 
Tuvinian Transliteration & Romanization 
Udmurt  Udmurt alphabet is based on the Russian Cyrillic alphabet.
Udmurt is one of the official languages of Russian constituent republic of Udmurtia alongside with Russian. 
Udmurt Transliteration & Romanization 
Uighur Also written as Uyghur, Uighur uses the Arabic, Latin and Cyrillic scripts.
Uighur is a Turkic language with 10 million native speakers mostly in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China.
Uighur Transliteration & Romanization
Ukrainian Written in a variant of the Cyrillic script, Ukrainian consists of 33 letters in both upper and lower cases.
Spoken by around 45 million people, it is the official language of Ukraine.
Ukrainian Transliteration & Romanization
Urdu Written in the Nasta'liq script, Urdu is a relatively young language that was developed in the mid-14th century.
Spoken by 70 million people, it is the lingua franca of Pakistan and the official language of 6 states in India.
Urdu Transliteration & Romanization 
Uzbek  Uzbek has been written in Arabic, Latin, Cyrillic, and currently Latin scripts chronologically.
Uzbek is the official of Uzbekistan with 27 million native speakers.
Uzbek Transliteration & Romanization 
Vai Also known as Vy or Gallinas, Vai is one of the few African language not based Latin or Arabic scripts.
Vai is a Niger-Congo language with 120,000 recorded native speakers mostly in Liberia and Sierra Leone.
Vai Transliteration & Romanization 
Yakut  Yakut uses Cyrillic script with the usual Russian characters with 5 additional letters.
Yakut is a Turkic language with 450,000 native speakers mostly in the Sakha Republic. 
Yakut Transliteration & Romanization 
Yiddish  Yiddish uses Hebrew script.
Yiddish is an Indo-European language with 1.5 million native speakers on record. 
Yiddish Transliteration & Romanization 
Hebrew and Yiddish Transliteration & Romanization